Alexandre Kafka (January 25, 1917 – November 28, 2007) had been an international economist mainly recognized for their are an Executive Director inside Global financial Fund (IMF).
Kafka was born in Prague to a family group with Jewish heritage inside Austro-Hungarian Empire. His dad, Bruno Kafka, ended up being an associate for the parliament of Czechoslovakia and a second relative of writer Franz Kafka. He was informed in Geneva and Balliol university at Oxford University. The intrusion of Czechoslovakia by Germany in 1939 forced their household to emigrate, deciding in Brazil in 1940, with Kafka becoming a Brazilian resident. As Denis Healey, a contemporary at Balliol, would bear in mind in the memoirs: "there have been additionally (in Balliol) a few refugees from Central European countries, a few of whom must transform their particular brands. One kept his title but changed their nationality. When I ended up being Chancellor of the Exchequer I became amazed to meet up with my Czech buddy, Alex Kafka, whilst the Brazilian Director associated with IMF."
It Had Been in his adoptive country in which he started his expert job, by teaching economics within Class of Sociology and Politics in São Paulo. In 1944, he became financial agent within Federation of Industries regarding the State of São Paulo. In 1949 he then moved to Washington, D.C. and joined up with the employees of this IMF, as Assistant Chief of this Latin-American Division into the Research division. He left after only 2 yrs to come back to Brazil to organize the Brazilian Institute of Economics in the Getúlio Vargas Foundation in Rio de Janeiro. He later on had been an adviser to invest in Minister Eugenio Gudin. By this time, he was one of the leading figures in Brazilian economics, known for his intellectual prowess and keen wit, and had developed a worldwide reputation.
In 1956, Kafka relocated north once again to the office during the us in nyc. For the next decade he presented overlapping appointments at the UN, as a Professor in the University of Virginia, and in numerous articles in Brazil. In July 1966, he went back toward IMF permanently, initially as Alternate towards the Executive Director for Brazil, Mauricio Chagas Bicalho. In November, he was chosen by Brazil, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Panama, and Peru to succeed Mr. Bicalho as Executive Director. Although he proceeded to carry adjunct or checking out academic jobs at Virginia, Boston University, and also the George Washington University all through the 1970s and 1980s, the IMF was his primary vocation after that.
As the representative of an important number of Latin-American nations, Kafka encountered tough challenges during his a lot more than three decades as Executive Director, as several of his countries faced stability of repayments crises time and again, and decided to go to the IMF for economic assistance recurrently. The connection between Brazil in addition to IMF had been particularly intense.
But through the very beginning, Kafka managed to make it obvious that he wasn't likely to focus narrowly on relations between his constituency as well as the Fund. Rather, he had been planning to talk out the passions of this establishing world and also make sure that their particular voices were heard. In 1966, the Compensatory funding center (CFF) was only starting to be a major supply of funding for commodity-exporting nations. Several of his very first treatments aimed to strengthen its part. Throughout their tenure regarding Board, he fought to expand the effectiveness for the CFF and also to avoid it from being paid down to a typical conditional facility. When you look at the 1960s, he helped formulate the special drawing legal rights (SDR) system in a way that would benefit building and professional nations. When you look at the 1970s, he had been instrumental in the creation and design regarding the extensive Fund center, in which he aided develop a consensus when it comes to oil facilities of 1974 and 1975. Following collapse associated with Bretton Woods system during the early 1970s, he served as Vice-Chairman for the Deputies associated with the Committee of Twenty, the forerunner of the Overseas financial and Financial Committee (IMFC). In the 1980s, he stressed the necessity of increased usage of Fund resources, insisted that international debt crisis cannot be solved until the developed countries assumed more responsibility for this, and worked for the creation and expansion of concessional lending facilities for low-income countries. In 1990s, he carried on to advocate systemic approaches to the problems for the developing world, through innovations like the HIPC Initiative.
Kafka ended up being elected Executive Director sixteen times, through numerous major shifts in balance of political power in Brazil therefore the other nations in the constituency. For longer than three years, he had been a mentor to Executive Directors and staff, a voice of explanation regarding the Board, and a master at brevity of phrase in the interventions. Especially, he'd a particular relationship utilizing the staff, which he'd as soon as already been a member. Those who understood him mainly through their economic writing always seemed to him as a senior professional colleague and not soleley as a member of this Executive Board. People who had the privilege of working together with him on missions to his countries had been impressed with his thoroughness and effectiveness in preparing for and participating in conversations with the authorities, no matter whether the mission was to Brazil or to any kind of nation in your community.
Alexandre Kafka retired from IMF in October 1998, after precisely 32 many years as Executive Director. Murilo Portugal, also from Brazil, had been elected inside the place.See also:
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